Monday, July 17, 2017

Work should not make you crazy

Being an office worker feels this wrong and it
needs to change or the global economy is in trouble.
I have been a business professional for over twenty years.  I have witnessed the good, the bad and the ugly of what it means to be a professional.  I am well compensated for my work, but like many people today I live paycheck to paycheck.  I have endured three recessions in my lifetime each time suffering a personal of a financial setback.  I am pretty stoic about these experiences, but they continue having a lingering effect on the kind of leadership I practice.  This week I want to talk about an issue which is an unspoken problem in the business community – mental health.

I began thinking about this topic when news came out on Mashable about Madalyn Parker.  She sent an e-mail where she told her staff that she was taking two days off for mental health reasons.  Her letter was then followed up by a letter from the CEO thanking her for taking the time to focus on her health and wished her a swift recovery.  What followed was a flurry of articles and think pieces about mental illness in the work place.  I want to add my two cents to the conversation.

The world of the white collar professional is unforgiving, highly competitive, impersonal and unfair.  The global economy does not care about the individuals who keep it going.  The factory worker manufacturing smart phones in China, the developer working late nights building applications and the young person cultivating social media likes are all part of this ecosystem.  This environment is an ideal breeding ground for mental illness.  With 1 in 5 Americans who have a mental illness, and I consider addiction part of this statistic, there needs to be a discussion about mental health in the work place.

The reason I became an agile practitioner is as a software developer I labored in plenty of situations which were dysfunctional.  I swore there must be a better way if given a chance I would help lead the necessary changes.  My career is guided by that mission.  In that respect, I am similar to the muckrakers and union organizers of the late 19th century.  These people lobbied and organized to end child labor, reduce injuries in the workplace, and enforced fire safety in all factories.  Eventually, the government became involved, and O.S.H.A. was created to ensure the abuses of the past never happen again.

Just like we do not want to work in factories where the likelihood of amputation or death is high we should also demand offices which discourage mental illness.  Here are some of the long term trends I see which are promoting mental illness.

The use of alcohol and recreational drugs as a social lubricant in business. – 

As long as there has been an America, there has been alcohol.  The nation’s drinking problem became so bad that elected officials, wrongly, passed a constitutional amendment to ban the sale of alcohol entirely. When prohibition proved to be a failure, American returned to its drinking ways.  The real spike in alcohol abuse in this nation took place in the 1950’s and 1960’s.  “The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit” and the television show “Mad Men” chronical these boozy times.

Fifty years later, alcohol is the drug of choice in the media profession.  Client in all industries is being “entertained” with fine wine and cocktails.  Account executives and vendors are exchanging and consuming alcohol, and it is a regular business practice.   Professionals see this as early as college and discover the consumption of alcohol is a way to deal with stress.  Some of these professionals develop addictions problems, and these addiction problems spill over into the business.

Also, the use of cannabis among engineers has increased over the last fifty years as well as abuse of cocaine among executive ranks.  The reliance of both legal and illegal means to alter consciousness exacerbates existing mental health issues and hurts productivity.  The office should not be a gateway to addiction.

Sleep deprivation. –

Tight deadlines, outsourcing and the around the clock nature of the economy means that a professional to conduct their job has an irregular sleep schedule.  I have written about the importance of sleep in the past, and so has my friend Lawrence Gasik.  Research has shown that people who do not get enough sleep exhibit the traits of PTSD or alcohol intoxication.  There are international conference calls to take and offshore teams to consult.  Business leaders still expect meetings in the office take place during daylight hours, so those people working on these bifurcated sleep schedules suffer in silence.  It explains why sleep aids, melatonin, coffee and Five Hour Energy drinks sell so well in the United States.  We are attempting to whipsaw our bodies into sleep and wakefulness to accommodate the demands of the global economy. This type of sleep deprivation also undermines the mental health of employees.

The focus on shareholder values instead of customer value in large companies. –

Richard Eastman of the Kodak Company paid his employees above average rates, provided numerous perks for his employees and provided outstanding service.  He resisted unionization of his office and factory workers but always made sure his pay and benefit packages were always better than the current market.  With rising unionization of the work force, capital balanced the needs of customers, labor, and shareholders.

This trend began to change as future CEO Jack Welch gave a speech about “Shareholder Value,” to The Pierre in New York.  Combined with the Chicago school of Economics, led by Nobel laureate Milton Freedman business leaders began to worry more about share price than other aspects of the firm.  The effects have been remarkable.  Stock prices have increased for many companies, a particular segment of the investment class has gotten obscenely wealthy, and many mergers and acquisitions have happened to create massive economies of scale.  Shareholder value also lead to the Financial Crisis of 2008 popularized in “The Big Short,” the rise and fall of Enron, the skullduggery of RJR Nabisco and finally the destruction numerous corporate towns in middle America and popularized by the book “Glass House.”

There is plenty of pushback in the academic community against the shareholder value movement, but the business sector has not embraced it and still do not see employees as partners in success.

The inability for business to pay people their real labor value. –

Since the Presidency of George W. Bush and the bursting of the bubble, companies have gotten very good at creating what my friend Bob Karzeniowski calls the musical chairs economy.  Using slow growth as an excuses firms are demanding more experience from applicants and cutting back training opportunities.  People cannot get on the career ladder, and those that do often have limited chances for advancement.  I also should point out that recruiters and hiring managers openly discriminate against the unemployed people and those who are laid off.

The Great Recession of 2008 – 2009, created a glut of workers.  It has taken nine years, but now that the job market has tightened, business people have lost the “muscle memory,” to increase labor participation to meet the market demand.  We now have created perverse incentives such as airlines having to cancel flights because there are not enough pilots.  Low wages, the musical chairs job market, and the mental scars of the great recession create insecurity.  This instability leads to the undermining of self-esteem and mental illness issues.

The promotions of people with psychopathic tendencies into executive leadership roles.  –

Over the last 40 years, we have been promoting the wrong people into business leadership roles.  Many of these people support the short sided notion of increasing shareholder value.  Making matters worse is some of them are psychopathic who find emotional fulfillment by playing people off each other.  Instead of nurturing others and guiding the business, these leaders create a toxic stew of dysfunction.

It is even more pernicious because these leaders become celebrities in the corporate world and media.  Finally, psychopaths are emotional chameleons kissing up and kicking down to advance their careers.  These emotional vampires undermine morale, and the mind games threaten mental health.

Finally, social stigma against people with mental illness means people who should get help do not. –

Numerous studies have shown the stigma of mental illness is the principle reason people do not get treatment.  This stigma is amplified in the business world where mental toughness and grit are highly prized; to admit weakness is to accept failure.  Venture capitalists are reluctant to give money to people who might be risky.  Someone with bipolar disorder or narcissistic rage is risky to lead a project.  The stigma of mental illness is equal to risk, so business people shun it.

I find it ironic business people does not treat individuals with diabetes or high blood pressure in a similar fashion.  Mental illness if managed correctly, resembles those chronic diseases.  So the stigma of mental illness and its effects on a career prevent people from getting help when they need it.

Taken together, I think these six factors in the modern workplace make it fertile soil to nature mental illness.  Most business people pay lip service to their employee’s mental health because they are trying to keep the business running, meet payroll, and keep investors happy.  It is an ugly spiral; if we want productivity and GDP numbers to improve the business community will have to make some significant reforms.

Just as a factory with fewer fatal accidents is more productive one with deadly accidents; then the contemporary office with fewer mental health problems is more competitive than an office filled with dysfunctional people.  What we currently have is not sustainable, it is better to reform now than wait and see what happens next.

Until next time.

Monday, July 10, 2017

Respond to Change or else

Change is not magic.
Software development is a weird stew of activities.  It is a creative activity taking the vague guidelines of others and turning it into working code.  It is an engineering activity because it requires a certain mindset only found in engineering.  It requires business acumen because software should do something which supports business.  Finally, a software developer has to adjust to change because technology, business, and the world are moving at the speed of the internet.  It is my firm belief that the best software developers and Scrum Masters need to acknowledge this change and learn to work with it.

I am coming up on twenty years in the software business, and the skills I needed at the beginning of my career do not match the ones I use today.  Some principles do translate like HTML, CSS, and object-oriented programming but in the beginning, there was no such thing as generics, responsive web design, or C#.  I relearned the skills I needed in my career every 18 months.  The reward for this struggle is employment and opportunities to share my experiences with others.  I want to make sure that no one suffers the kind of failure or mishaps I have in my career.

The constant theme in my career has been responding to change.  When careers began to dry up, I learned to code in C#.  As screens became smaller and mobile computing began to grow; I had to learn Bootstrap CSS and Jquery Mobile.  I was an early adopter of Agile and Scrum, but that has not stopped me from reaching out to find out more frameworks like LESS and SAFe to be successful.  In this business, a person needs to keep learning and growing.

In the agile manifesto, this idea is called, “Responding to change over following a plan.” In our contemporary economy, there are no promises in business so as a working person it is important to make sure your skills are up to date and marketable.  As an employer, it is important to address technical debt and make sure your staff is learning the latest skills to keep your company infrastructure up to date.  Upgrade your servers, use an office suite in the current decade, and shun mediocrity in all its forms.

The only thing sure in the business community is change and to be a successful software developer or scrum master you must learn to embrace change.

Until next time.

Monday, July 3, 2017

Feeling All American!!

America may not look good but we have a lot to offer.
The United States is commemorating its Independence Day.  It is a time to look back at the nation’s history, celebrate the present and look to the future.  I am a business person and agilest.  I am also American which means I view the world with a, particularly American perspective.  This week, I want to talk about my American perspective and how it shapes my agile practice.

My European and Canadian friend tease me with the stereotype of the “Ugly American.”  To them, the stereotype posits that we American’s are uncouth interlopers with lots of money but no manners, style, culture or ideas which have value to the rest of the world.  I disagree with them politely and let the facts speak for themselves.  America for better or worse helped create the global economy in the aftermath of the second world war; we take for granted today.  America is why you can purchase a Coca-Cola in any nation in the world. 

We are not a perfect nation.  Our politics are deeply divided, and we are currently involved in on-going wars in the Middle East.  In spite of those challenges, American’s for the last century have stood up to totalitarianism, communism, and terrorism.  When asked, we have come to the aid of our allies and attempted to act as an example for the rest of the world to follow.  That said, I think our three biggest exports to the world are philosophical. Two of these concepts come from the nineteenth century; Transcendentalism and Pragmatism.  The other is from the present day – the agile reformation.  All three of these diverse ideas influence me and my agile practice.

Transcendentalism seems very high brow and something out of a high school American literature course, but we see its influence around us.  The focus on individualism and finding a spiritual connection with the divine links it with the current new age movement.  Thoreau’s ideas of civil disobedience are part of every social justice movement.  Finally, the desire to embrace nature and simplicity is the central framework of modern environmentalism.  I see the concentration on the individual and desire to make the most of one’s time on earth outlined in transcendentalism to be revealing.  Life is too short to be working on poorly run projects and being involved in drudgery.  Work must not only provide material comfort, but it must give people purpose.  I thank transcendentalism for that perspective.  

Pragmatism was a significant movement in American thinking.  Its central idea is, “…the practical application of ideas by acting on them to test them in human experience.”  In other words, a pragmatist does not worry about grand theories of how the world works.  They are concerned about what ideas “work” in the world.  It is responding to change over following a plan.  To pragmatists, an idea or action is only useful based on its practical application in the world.  Pragmatism is why all cities in the United States have water treatment.  Thanks to Pragmatists we set aside our notions of free markets and individual liberty to charge everyone taxes to make sure water is safe to drink.  To reduce the spread of cholera and dysentery in our nation, we sacrificed some individual liberty.  This a classic example of pragmatism.  For a scrum master or agile coach, it means you need to reject ideological rigidity if you want the team to be more successful; in other words, respond to change.

Finally, we have to discuss the agile movement and how it went from an American idea to a global reformation.  The Scrum Alliance has gatherings in Dublin and Singapore this year.  The Scaled Agile Alliance is spreading knowledge around the world.  Finally, business from Korea to Canada attempting to take the Agile manifesto and make it work for their companies.  The reason why we have this broad acceptance of the new way of doing business is that it delivers improved results.  We are turning out software better and faster thanks to the agile reformation than any time in the history of the industry.  It seems pragmatism encourages these new ways of doing things in the business world.

So, this “Ugly American,” takes pride in transcendentalism, pragmatism and agile.  They are uniquely American ideas which are making the business community and the world a better place.

Happy Independence Day and Until next time.

Monday, June 26, 2017

Developing the professional scrum master

If you think this is ugly try
hiring an amateur plumber to fix it. 
The business world has a saying, “If you think hiring a professional is expensive, wait until you hire an amateur.”  The obvious meaning being a poorly trained amateur will cost the company more money than someone who is more expensive but better qualified.  This week I want to talk about the minimum standards of professionalism you should expect from a scrum master.

I am a big believer that with enough time and training anyone can develop a useful skill.  If I devoted ten years of my life learning to be a plumber I could become competent.  Unfortunately, I know myself well enough to know that I need to call a professional when my water heater breaks.  A bonded plumber is worth the time and expense for me to have hot water.

When you get into other activities training is only a small part of the equation.  You can practice piano for years and still not be good enough to entertain an audience not composed of parents.  Jazz musicians refer to the quality of being able to improvise and perform in front of an unpredictable crowd as “chops.”  The idea is that anyone can learn to play the notes, but a real musician has chops.  Hard work, combined with talent makes a jazz musician successful.

I feel the same way about scrum mastery.  Everyone can be trained to do the job, but only a minority can do the job well.  It is the difference between having a high school student perform at your night club and having Elton John setting up a residency.  Fortunately, there are plenty of good programs to train scrum masters.  I am particularly fond of the Scrum Alliance Certified Scrum Master certification because it teaches the basics of the job along with the more touchy-feely skills which come with the job.

Once they have received some training, they can then lead a scrum team.  I recommend putting a rookie scrum master with an experienced product owner. This way the scrum master can gain experience with someone who can show them the ropes of the business and the particulars of a project.  With a year or two of experience, a scrum master can help a product owner learn their trade.  Much like the ideas proposed in extreme programming an experienced veteran should partner with a rookie so they both gain from each other’s experience.

With a little luck, you will find someone who is outgoing, a good communicator, empathic, has grace under pressure and can act as team therapist.  Then and only then do you have a scrum master with chops who can take your team to the next level.  So take the time to train your scrum masters.  Next, pair them with experienced developers and product owners, so they gain confidence and experience.  Finally, make sure you find people who possess the talents which will make them successful in the job.  If you do this, you will not have to pay extra for an amateur managing your scrum teams.

Until next time.

Monday, June 19, 2017

Beware the Temptation of "Dark Scrum"

Avoid the temptations of "Dark Scrum"
I have been an agilist since 2009.  I began collecting certifications for Agile and Scrum since 2013.  I even finished up my master’s degree studying the differences between waterfall and iterative project management processes.  I have some skills.  What I find most challenging as an agile practitioner is a disconnect between those of us doing the work and the business people who depend on us.  When this happens, it creates a situation Ron Jeffries calls, “Dark Scrum.”  As a scrum master and agile coach, it is your duty to avoid this situation.  This week on the blog avoiding the temptations of “dark scrum.”

In my formulation, "dark scrum," is when the business users of Scrum use the methodology to enforce control over software development rather than use it to improve quality and customer satisfaction.  Jefferies gives plenty of good examples on his blog, but I would like to provide two more.  I consider them to be pathologies of a dysfunctional organization.

Dark scrum pathology – shoehorning arbitrary deadlines on to sprints.  

One afternoon, I was in the office of a Vice President.  I had been raising concerns with him that a project was going poorly and that I would need his support and intervention.  The meeting did not go well.

“I promised the board that this project would be done by X date,” he said.

I told him based on the stories we had and a three-week sprint cadence we could deliver by a later date.

“You are agile, figure it out,” the VP said, “I need it by X date.”

The executive violated the social compact of agile, and we removed stories and features to meet the arbitrary date.  The customer was disappointed, and the Vice President looked bad.

Dark scrum pathology – why do I have to meet with the off-shore team.

Product owners write stories, but because of the time difference between the onshore and offshore components of the project, did not participate in the stand-up meetings.  We had created a situation where the developers would ask questions, and it would take over 24 hours to get them answered.  Product owners also complained that the team was not understanding the detailed requirements to get the work done.  When prodded to attend the stand-up call with the off-shore team a product owner indignantly said, “I am not waking up that early to talk with India!”

We were able to correct these pathologies.

To address the arbitrary deadline problem, bring in executives and product owners to level set expectations.  In the world of Scrum, the product owner is the person primarily responsible for the success or failure of a project.  The executives outside the team are responsible for funding and helping to remove organizational obstacles.  Knowing financing and deadline commitments provides the product owner a framework to write stories.  The scrum master can then use team velocity and the sprint cadence to let everyone know when a deadline is realistic and when it is not.  This way the social compact of agile is respected, and there are not secrets for all the parties involved.

We solved the next pathology by moving up the stand-up meeting by thirty minutes.  The product owner could take the call from home when they got out of bed but before they came into the office.  Product owners answered questions quickly and user stories improved.  Also, automated testing got better as product owners relied on the offshore QA professionals to streamline acceptance testing.  What was once a burden, became a win-win for the entire team.

The hard part about being a scrum master and agile coach is you are forced to come up with solutions like this each day to prevent your organization from falling into “dark scrum.”  Any situation where those in power ignore the input of the people doing the work is going to add darkness to the organization.  It is why the agile reformation is so important.  By beating back the pathologies of “dark scrum,” we can be successful software developers and professionals.

Until next time.

Monday, June 12, 2017

Leading by example for the scrum master

Any good scrum master will tell you the hardest part of the job is servant leadership.  Each day you need to sublimate your wants and desires for the good of the team.  It is a difficult road to travel, and I want to discuss it this week on the blog.

I find plenty of inspiration from the United States Marine Corps.  They were into servant leadership before the concept had a name in the business world.  All Marine Corps officers learn the phrase “Ductus Exemplo,” which is Latin for the phrase “lead by example.”  That means Marine officers are expected to be an example to the troops they lead and each other.  They eat last.  They make sure their appearance and equipment are “squared away,” so that other troops will follow along.  They don’t rest until everyone come back from patrol.  Finally, they don’t ask anyone to do something they would not do themselves.

The scrum master has plenty of other responsibilities.  They are making sure the team is improving each sprint.  They train product owners and hold them responsible for their work.  They are learning new techniques to keep up with the latest technology trends.  It is late nights doing production pushes with the release team and early morning working with offshore developers.

The reason for many of these sacrifices is simple.  Someday you are going to need developers to work late or a product owner to go above and beyond the call of duty.  That is when they will follow your example and come through.

In short, servant leadership is leading by example and something you will have to do if you want your team to succeed.

Until next time.

Monday, June 5, 2017

Scrum Master Dragon Slayer

This is a typical agile implementation
Growing up in the 1980’s, when you set aside the prospect of the United States and the Soviet Union having a nuclear exchange, it was an excellent time to grow up.  Dungeons and Dragons were part of the popular culture and the movies reflected this trend with films like “The Sword and the Sorcerer,” “Conan the Barbarian,” and the cult classic “The Beastmaster.”  For a nerdy teenage boy, it was beautiful escapism.  It was also a way to learn a few serious lessons about life.  "Excalibur" showed the cost of infidelity to a thirteen-year-old who had not started shaving.  The most significant lesson came from a dark Disney film entitled “Dragonslayer.”

The film had a simple plot.  A dragon is terrorizing a local kingdom, and a wizard and his apprentice must slay the creature. The mission has additional urgency because the king’s daughter has arranged to sacrifice herself to the dragon.  The story has all sorts of threads woven together.  It is the sixth century, so Christians are using the dragon to recruit converts.  The pagan king sees the Christians and their desires to undermine his legitimacy as more important than the life of his daughter.  There are an aging wizard and impetuous apprentice along with a princess and a fire-breathing dragon to round out the cast.

Late one night in a moment of insomnia, it dawned on me this movie was the perfect metaphor for an agile implementation.  The wizard and apprentice are consultants hired by the king to help him solve his dragon problem.  These consultants discover the depths of the political and social rot in the kingdom which threatens to consume them.  Finally, there is the climactic moment where the dragon has to die.

People behave certain ways and do certain things because people have behaved that way for centuries.  Everyone is looking out for themselves, and the dragon is always in the background ready to bring destruction from the air.  I cannot describe a better way to explain a contract engagement with a client if I tried.  

The most galling portion of the film is after the dragon dies; the local king stands over the corpse of the beast with a sword and stabs the dead creature while his Chamberlain proclaims the king a “dragon slayer.”  Countless people have died in the process, and the Christians use the death of the dragon as a recruiting tool.  It almost makes a person wish the dragon could win and turn the entire kingdom into ash – almost.

Like someone who has had an agile practice for the last eight years, I identify with the wizard and his apprentice.  I am training others to be better developers, product owners, and scrum masters.  I am also looking to help develop my skills to make myself better and more useful to my clients and employers.  Often, I encounter internal rot in organizations and have to focus on the dragon flying overhead instead of the more long-range problems.

As a scrum master and coach here is what I do.  Considering I have hired to slay a dragon, the first thing I concentrate on is killing the dragon.  A common phrase in business is “…first things first; last things never.”  Fix the dragon problem.  I expect that the king will take credit for my work.  They did not become King being kind people.  Next set an example so that other villagers will aspire to be wizards.  The practice of agile will only grow if it spreads person to person.  Certifications and trade shows are necessary, but the only way it is truly going to take over the business world is when conscientious practitioners make the agile manifesto and principles work for companies.

Finally, know when to ride off into the sunset.  An agile coach and scrum master are often a threat to the executive leadership because they are more interested in getting work done than the political niceties executives seem to give more priority.  When this happens, tip your hat to the king who took credit for your job and ride off into the sunset.  It may explain why many of the better wizards of literature wander or are hermits.  Working for the King is a sure road to stagnation.

So as one sorcerer apprentice to another; always slay the dragon, recruit more apprentices by your actions, and ride off when you are not needed or wanted anymore.  It certainly beats winding up in the belly of a dragon or the king’s dungeon.

Until next time.